Cynodon dactylon , commonly called Bermuda grass lawn agramen among others, is a perennial grass of the Poaceae family native of northern Africa and southern Europe. The English name "Bermuda Grass" derives from its abundance as a weed in Bermuda. It is also known for being the most abundant worldwide . It is one of the Ten Sacred Flowers of Kerala.
The leaves are grayish green (no water stress recover deep green ) , short, 4-15 cm long with strong membranous edges; pods 1.5 to 7 cm long, usually shorter than the internodes , vilosas at apex, the lower keeled , membranous ligules , cilioladas , 0.2 to 0.3 mm long , sometimes on the back vilosas , sheets of 0.5 to 6.5 cm long by 1 to 3.5 mm wide , flattened , in folded sometimes scaberulous ( little rough ) generally behind vilosas ligule at lower margins and occasionally in both surfaces.
Erect or decumbent stems can grow 1-30 cm (rarely up to 9 dm ) high. The stems are slightly flattened , sometimes with purple paint .
The inflorescences are spikes ( 3) 4-6 , 1.5 to 6 cm long, distributed in a whorl , usually radiated . The spikelet / flower : spikelets 2-3 mm long, rachis and overlapping prey , purplish green, glumes 1-3 mm long, glabrous , the first falcate ( sickle-shaped ), the second lanceolate ; Motto 2-3 mm long, strongly keeled and folded without edge or occasionally with a short mucro , glabrous palea as long as or a little shorter than the lemma ; long , naked or wearing a second male flower or rudimentary rachilla .
It has a very deep root system ; in drought with penetrable soil profile , roots can grow to over 2 m deep, although most of the root mass is less than 60 cm below the surface. The stems creep along the ground , and lymph out new roots , forming dense mats .
This species reproduces by seed, stolons and rhizomes. Regrowth and growth begins at temperatures above 15 ° C , the optimum is between 24 to 37 ° C ; in winter the grass completely dry aerial part , entering dormancy and turns brown beige.
Physiologically, has a fixation process very efficient carbon : 4-carbon pathway , such as corn, sugarcane , sorghum , amaranth .
Cultivation and uses
This grass is widely cultivated in warm and temperate climates around the world, between 30 ° south and 30 ° north latitude , and between 500 and 2800 mm of annual rainfall (or much less , if irrigation is available ) . It thrives from sea level to 2200 meters. It is fast growing , popular and being used in the fields of sports, quickly recovers damaged . It is highly desired in turf grasses in temperate and warm climates , particularly in regions where its heat tolerance and drought makes it useful to survive where few other grasses thrive . There are numerous cultivars selected for different turf requirements . It is very aggressive , eliminating many other species and becoming invasive species in many areas. Gardeners call it " devil grass " for its colonizing power .
Ways to Control
Resistant to fire as sugarcane and constant cutting alfalfa as fodder .
Glyphosate 48 % : resists common dosages up to 4 L / ha. The fight well above 6 L / ha , never subdoses or fractional .
Glyphosate 74.7 % : 3.5 kg / ha
PRILAN 10: selective in broadleaf crops such as sunflower , peanut , cotton, soya beans and graminicide systemic herbicide. Postemergence control of C. dactylon . It is propaquizafop 10%. Dose : 1 L / ha + 2 L / ha crop oil + 200 L / ha water.